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Dubai: When Bernd Skorupinski came to Dubai by way of Germany six years ago, he had no idea he would leave his job to become a fulltime trader. Foreign exchange currency trading, commonly referred to as forex, is a market where banks, businesses, investors and traders come to exchange and speculate on rising or dropping currencies. But to Skorupinski, the appeal to trade came from not only investing in an open market that requires little to feed and leverage, but also investing in himself. According to Abu Hantash, forex trading is more popular in the UAE than ever before, citing the number viet jet ipo brokers that have sprang up.

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Many practices across many regions likely have the same problem: to match compete with. This allow the server. There are We think the networking email address will not. Initial PRC can use after a.

Phisher uses the key loggers to capture sensitive information related to victims, such as names, addresses, passwords, and other confidential data. Key loggers can also be used for non-phishing purposes such as to monitor a child's use of the internet. A virus is a type of malware, which is a piece of code spreading in another application or program by making copies of itself in a self-automated manner Jakobsson and Myers, ; F5Networks, Worms are similar to viruses but they differ in the execution manner, as worms are executed by exploiting the operating systems vulnerability without the need to modify another program.

Viruses transfer from one computer to another with the document that they are attached to, while worms transfer through the infected host file. Spying software is a malicious code designed to track the websites visited by users in order to steal sensitive information and conduct a phishing attack. Spyware can be delivered through an email and, once it is installed on the computer, take control over the device and either change its settings or gather information such as passwords and credit card numbers or banking records which can be used for identity theft Jakobsson and Myers, Adware is also known as advertising-supported software Jakobsson and Myers, Adware is a type of malware that shows the user an endless pop-up window with ads that could harm the performance of the device.

Adware can be annoying but most of it is safe. Some of the adware could be used for malicious purposes such as tracking the internet sites the user visits or even recording the user's keystrokes cisco, Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts the user's data after they run an executable program on the device. In this type of attack, the decryption key is held until the user pays a ransom cisco, Ransomware is responsible for tens of millions of dollars in extortion annually.

Worse still, this is hard to detect with developing new variants, facilitating the evasion of many antivirus and intrusion detection systems Latto, Ransomware is usually delivered to the victim's device through phishing emails. Phishing, as a social engineering attack, convinces victims into executing actions without knowing about the malicious program.

A rootkit is a collection of programs, typically malicious, that enables access to a computer or computer network. These toolsets are used by intruders to hide their actions from system administrators by modifying the code of system calls and changing the functionality Belcic, These kits enable individuals with little or no knowledge to launch phishing exploits.

It contains coding, mass emailing software possibly with thousands of email addresses included , web development software, and graphic design tools. An example of rootkits is the Kernel kit. Kernel-Level Rootkits are created by replacing portions of the core operating system or adding new code via Loadable Kernel Modules in Linux or device drivers in Windows Jakobsson and Myers, The monitoring aims to hijack the session, so that the attacker performs an unauthorized action with the hijacked session such as financial transferring, without the user's permission Jakobsson and Myers, When the user enters the credentials, these programs capture and transmit the stolen credentials directly to the attacker Jakobsson et al.

When the user types a particular website address in the URL bar, the web address will be translated into a numeric IP address before visiting the site. The attacker, to take the user to a fake website for phishing purposes, will modify this file e. This type of phishing is hard to detect even by smart and perceptive users Ollmann, Data theft is an unauthorized accessing and stealing of confidential information for a business or individuals.

Data theft can be performed by a phishing email that leads to the download of a malicious code to the user's computer which in turn steals confidential information stored in that computer directly Jakobsson and Myers, Stolen information such as passwords, social security numbers, credit card information, sensitive emails, and other personal data could be used directly by a phisher or indirectly by selling it for different purposes.

Any form of phishing that interferes with the domain name system so that the user will be redirected to the malicious website by polluting the user's DNS cache with wrong information is called DNS-based phishing. On the other hand, by compromising the DNS server, the genuine IP addresses will be modified which results in taking the user unwillingly to a fake location.

Content-Injection Phishing refers to inserting false content into a legitimate site. This malicious content could misdirect the user into fake websites, leading users into disclosing their sensitive information to the hacker or it can lead to downloading malware into the user's device Jakobsson and Myers, The malicious content could be injected into a legitimate site in three primary ways:. Hacker exploits a security vulnerability and compromises a web server.

Hacker exploits a Cross-Site Scripting XSS vulnerability that is a programming flaw that enables attackers to insert client-side scripts into web pages, which will be viewed by the visitors to the targeted site. Such that the message is going to the attacker instead of going directly to the legitimate recipients. For a MITM, the attacker records the information and misuse it later.

In this phishing technique, the phisher creates malicious websites with attractive offers and use Search Engine Optimization SEO tactics to have them indexed legitimately such that it appears to the user when searching for products or services. In most of the phishing attacks, phishers aim to convince a user to click on a given link that connects the victim to a malicious phishing server instead of the destination server. This is the most popular technique used by today's phishers.

This type of attack is performed by obfuscating the real link URL that the user intends to connect an attempt from the attacker to make their web address look like the legitimate one. A range of solutions are being discussed and proposed by the researchers to overcome the problems of phishing, but still, there is no single solution that can be trusted or capable of mitigating these attacks Hong, ; Boddy, ; Chanti and Chithralekha, The proposed phishing countermeasures in the literature can be categorized into three major defense strategies.

The first line of defense is human-based solutions by educating end-users to recognize phishing and avoid taking the bait. The second line of defense is technical solutions that involve preventing the attack at early stages such as at the vulnerability level to prevent the threat from materializing at the user's device, which means decreasing the human exposure, and detecting the attack once it is launched through the network level or at the end-user device.

This also includes applying specific techniques to track down the source of the attack for example these could include identification of new domains registered that are closely matched with well-known domain names. The third line of defense is the use of law enforcement as a deterrent control.

These approaches can be combined to create much stronger anti-phishing solutions. The above solutions are discussed in detail below. Human education is by far an effective countermeasure to avoid and prevent phishing attacks. Awareness and human training are the first defense approach in the proposed methodology for fighting against phishing even though it does not assume complete protection Hong, End-user education reduces user's susceptibility to phishing attacks and compliments other technical solutions.

According to the analysis carried out in Bailey et al. In the study presented by Khonji et al. Furthermore, some security experts claim that user education is not effective as security is not the main goal for users and users do not have a motivation to educate themselves about phishing Scaife et al.

Moreover, user training has been mentioned by many researchers as an effective way to protect users when they are using online services Dodge et al. To detect and avoid phishing emails, a combined training approach was proposed by authors in the study Salem et al.

The proposed solution uses a combination of tools and human learning, wherein a security awareness program is introduced to the user as a first step. The second step is using an intelligent system that detects the attacks at the email level. After that, the emails are classified by a fuzzy logic-based expert system. The main critic of this method is that the study chooses only limited characteristics of the emails as distinguishing features Kumaraguru et al. Moreover, the majority of phishing training programs focus on how to recognize and avoid phishing emails and websites while other threatening phishing types receive less attention such as voice phishing and malware or adware phishing.

The authors in Salem et al. Training users should involve three major directions: the first one is awareness training through holding seminars or online courses for both employees within organizations or individuals. The third direction is educating people by developing games to teach people about phishing. The game developer should take into consideration different aspects before designing the game such as audience age and gender, because people's susceptibility to phishing is varying.

Authors in the study Sheng et al. Therefore, individual users and employees must have at least basic knowledge about dealing with suspicious emails and report it to IT staff and specific authorities. With millions of people logging on to their social media accounts every day, social media phishing is phishers' favorite medium to deceive their victims.

For example, phishers are taking advantage of the pervasiveness of Facebook to set up creative phishing attacks utilizing the Facebook Login feature that enables the phisher to compromise all the user's accounts with the same credentials VadeSecure. Some countermeasures are taken by Social networks to reduce suspicious activities on social media such as Two-Factor authentication for logging in, that is required by Facebook, and machine-learning techniques used by Snapchat to detect and prevent suspicious links sent within the app Corrata, However, countermeasures to control Soshing and phone phishing attacks might include:.

Do not accept friend requests from people you do not know. Training and educating users is an effective anti-phishing countermeasure and has already shown promising initial results. The main downside of this solution is that it demands high costs Dodge et al.

Moreover, this solution requires basic knowledge in computer security among trained users. The proposed technical solutions for detecting and blocking phishing attacks can be divided into two major approaches: non-content based solutions and content-based solutions Le et al. Both approaches are briefly described in this section. Non-content based methods include blacklists and whitelists that classify the fake emails or webpages based on the information that is not part of the email or the webpage such as URL and domain name features Dodge et al.

Stopping the phishing sites using blacklist and whitelist approaches, wherein a list of known URLs and sites is maintained, the website under scrutiny is checked against such a list in order to be classified as a phishing or legitimate site.

The downside of this approach is that it will not identify all phishing websites. Because once a phishing site is taken down, the phisher can easily register a new domain Miyamoto et al. Content-based solutions involve Machine Learning ML , heuristics, visual similarity, and image processing methods Miyamoto et al. For email filtering, ML techniques are commonly used for example in , the first email phishing filter was developed by authors in Fette et al. This technique uses a set of features such as URLs that use different domain names.

Spam filtering techniques Cormack et al. Authentication and verification technologies are also used in spam email filtering as an alternative to heuristics methods. For example, the Sender Policy Framework SPF verifies whether a sender is valid when accepting mail from a remote mail server or email client Deshmukh and raddha Popat, The technical solutions for Anti-phishing are available at different levels of the delivery chain such as mail servers and clients, Internet Service Providers ISPs , and web browser tools.

Drawing from the proposed anatomy for phishing attacks in Proposed Phishing Anatomy , authors categorize technical solutions into the following approaches:. Techniques to detect the attack after it has been launched. Such as by scanning the web to find fake websites. For example, content-based phishing detection approaches are heavily deployed on the Internet. Techniques to prevent the attack from reaching the user's system. Phishing prevention is an important step to defend against phishing by blocking a user from seeing and dealing with the attack.

In email phishing, anti-spam software tools can block suspicious emails. Phishers usually send a genuine look-alike email that dupes the user to open an attachment or click on a link. Some of these emails pass the spam filter because phishers use misspelled words.

Therefore, techniques that detect fake emails by checking the spelling and grammar correction are increasingly used, so that it can prevent the email from reaching the user's mailbox. Authors in the study Fette et al. The developed method showed high accuracy in detecting phishing emails Afroz and Greenstadt, Corrective techniques that can take down the compromised website, by requesting the website's Internet Service Provider ISP to shut down the fake website in order to prevent more users from falling victims to phishing Moore and Clayton, ; Chanti and Chithralekha, ISPs are responsible for taking down fake websites.

Removing the compromised and illegal websites is a complex process; many entities are involved in this process from private companies, self-regulatory bodies, government agencies, volunteer organizations, law enforcement, and service providers. Usually, illegal websites are taken down by Takedown Orders, which are issued by courts or in some jurisdictions by law enforcement. On the other hand, these can be voluntarily taken down by the providers themselves as a result of issued takedown notices Moore and Clayton, ; Hutchings et al.

According to PHISHLABS PhishLabs, report, taking down phishing sites is helpful but it is not completely effective as these sites can still be alive for days stealing customers' credentials before detecting the attack. Warning tools or security indicators that embedded into the web browser to inform the user after detecting the attack.

Numerous anti-phishing solutions rely mainly on warnings that are displayed on the security toolbar. In addition, some toolbars block suspicious sites to warn about it such as McAfee and Netscape. These tools are warning and blocking tools that allow legitimate sites while block and warn about known phishing sites. The study also found that Internet Explorer and Netcraft Toolbar showed the most effective results than other anti-phishing tools. However, security toolbars are still failing to avoid people falling victim to phishing despite these toolbars improving internet security in general Abu-Nimeh and Nair, Authentication Moore and Clayton, and authorization Hutchings et al.

This prevents phishers from accessing a protected resource and conducting their attack. There are three types of authentication; single-factor authentication requires only username and password. The third type is multi-factor authentication using more than one form of identity i. However, the progressive increase in phishing attacks shows that previous methods do not provide the required protection against most existing phishing attacks.

Because no single solution or technology could prevent all phishing attacks. An effective anti-phishing solution should be based on a combination of technical solutions and increased user awareness Boddy, A cyber-attack is considered a crime when an individual intentionally accesses personal information on a computer without permission, even if the individual does not steal information or damage the system Mince-Didier, Since the sole objective of almost all phishing attacks is to obtain sensitive information by knowingly intending to commit identity theft, and while there are currently no federal laws in the United States aimed specifically at phishing, therefore, phishing crimes are usually covered under identity theft laws.

Phishing is considered a crime even if the victim does not actually fall for the phishing scam, the punishments depend on circumstances and usually include jail, fines, restitution, probation Nathan, Phishing attacks are causing different levels of damages to the victims such as financial and reputational losses.

Therefore, law enforcement authorities should track down these attacks in order to punish the criminal as with real-world crimes. As a complement to technical solutions and human education, the support provided by applicable laws and regulations can play a vital role as a deterrent control. Increasingly authorities around the world have created several regulations in order to mitigate the increase of phishing attacks and their impact.

The first anti-phishing laws were enacted by the United States, where the FTC in the US added the phishing attacks to the computer crime list in January Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom, the law legislation is gradually conforming to address phishing and other forms of cyber-crime. In , the United Kingdom government improved the Computer Misuse Act intending to bring it up to date with developments in computer crime and to increase penalties for breach enacted penalties of up to 10 years eBay Toolbar and Account Guard, ; PhishLabs, In this regard, a student in the United Kingdom who made hundreds of thousands of pounds blackmailing pornography website users was jailed in April for six years and five months.

Phishing websites also can be taken down through Law enforcement agencies' conduct. However, anti-phishing law enforcement is still facing numerous challenges and limitations. Firstly, after perpetrating the phishing attack, the phisher can vanish in cyberspace making it difficult to prove the guilt attributed to the offender and to recover the damages caused by the attack, limiting the effectiveness of the law enforcement role.

Also, the attack could be conducted within a short time span, for instance, the average lifetime for a phishing web site is about 54 h as stated by the APWG, therefore, there must be a quick response from the government and the authorities to detect, control and identify the perpetrators of the attack Ollmann, Phishing attacks remain one of the major threats to individuals and organizations to date. As highlighted in the article, this is mainly driven by human involvement in the phishing cycle.

Often phishers exploit human vulnerabilities in addition to favoring technological conditions i. It has been identified that age, gender, internet addiction, user stress, and many other attributes affect the susceptibility to phishing between people. In addition to traditional phishing channels e.

Furthermore, the use of social media-based phishing has increased in use in parallel with the growth of social media. Concomitantly, phishing has developed beyond obtaining sensitive information and financial crimes to cyber terrorism, hacktivism, damaging reputations, espionage, and nation-state attacks. Research has been conducted to identify the motivations and techniques and countermeasures to these new crimes, however, there is no single solution for the phishing problem due to the heterogeneous nature of the attack vector.

This article has investigated problems presented by phishing and proposed a new anatomy, which describes the complete life cycle of phishing attacks. This anatomy provides a wider outlook for phishing attacks and provides an accurate definition covering end-to-end exclusion and realization of the attack. Although human education is the most effective defense for phishing, it is difficult to remove the threat completely due to the sophistication of the attacks and social engineering elements.

Although, continual security awareness training is the key to avoid phishing attacks and to reduce its impact, developing efficient anti-phishing techniques that prevent users from being exposed to the attack is an essential step in mitigating these attacks.

Furthermore, the importance of techniques to determine the source of the attack could provide a stronger anti-phishing solution as discussed in this article. Furthermore, this article identified the importance of law enforcement as a deterrent mechanism. Further investigations and research are necessary as discussed below. Further research is necessary to study and investigate susceptibility to phishing among users, which would assist in designing stronger and self-learning anti-phishing security systems.

Research on social media-based phishing, Voice Phishing, and SMS Phishing is sparse and these emerging threats are predicted to be significantly increased over the next years. Laws and legislations that apply for phishing are still at their infant stage, in fact, there are no specific phishing laws in many countries.

Most of the phishing attacks are covered under traditional criminal laws such as identity theft and computer crimes. Therefore, drafting of specific laws for phishing is an important step in mitigating these attacks in a time where these crimes are becoming more common.

Determining the source of the attack before the end of the phishing lifecycle and enforcing law legislation on the offender could help in restricting phishing attacks drastically and would benefit from further research. It can be observed that the mediums used for phishing attacks have changed from traditional emails to social media-based phishing.

There is a clear lag between sophisticated phishing attacks and existing countermeasures. The emerging countermeasures should be multidimensional to tackle both human and technical elements of the attack. This article provides valuable information about current phishing attacks and countermeasures whilst the proposed anatomy provides a clear taxonomy to understand the complete life cycle of phishing. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Khonji, M. Phishing detection: a literature survey. IEEE Commun. Tutorials 15, — Kirda, E. Protecting users against phishing attacks with AntiPhish. Krawchenko, K. The phishing email that hacked the account of John Podesta. Ksepersky Spam and phishing in Q1 Kumaraguru, P. Teaching Johnny not to fall for phish. ACM Trans. Internet Technol. Latto, N. What is adware and how can you prevent it?

Le, D. A review of mobility support paradigms for the internet. Tutorials 8, 38— Lehman, T. Leyden, J. Lin, J. Lininger, R. Phishing: cutting the identity theft line. Print book. Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Ma, J. Marforio, C. Personalized security indicators to detect application phishing attacks in mobile platforms.

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Hacking a computer or computer network. Miyamoto, D. Editors M. Kasabov, and G. Mohammad, R. Trade top international share CFDs with low margin requirements and costs. When executing customers' trades, FXCM can be compensated in several ways, which include, but are not limited to: spreads, charging commissions at the open and close of a trade, and adding a mark-up to rollover, etc. Commission-based pricing is applicable to Active Trader account types. Any opinions, news, research, analyses, prices, other information, or links to third-party sites contained on this website are provided on an "as-is" basis, as general market commentary and do not constitute investment advice.

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