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In our previous article about the Integrator op-amp , we have seen that the implementation of a reactive component significantly changes the electrical behavior of OPAMPs in comparison to fully-based resistive designs.

Indeed, the presence of a capacitor in the feedback loop constitutes the main aspect of integrators, which perform electrically the mathematical operation of integration. When the position of the capacitor is inversed, that is to say, that the feedback branch becomes resistive and the input branch reactive, a new configuration commonly known as a differentiator emerges.

The goal of the first section will be to present the general function of the differentiator op-amp and we will of course also demonstrate and explain its output formula. Such as we have seen for the integrator, the ideal differentiator configuration that we focus on in the first section presents limitations that can be overcome with an alternative design.

A differentiator is an inverting op-amp configuration in which a capacitor is present in the input branch such as shown in Figure 1 below:. We remind, as we properly explained in the integrator tutorial , that in the DC regime, a capacitor is equivalent to an open circuit while in the high-frequency regime it tends to be a short circuit as the frequency increases. If we project this observation to the circuit shown in Figure 1 , two different configurations can explain the behavior of the differentiator in low and high-frequency regimes:.

In both cases, the differentiator can be reduced to an inverting op-amp and when the input signal frequency is very low the capacitor tends to block it. On the other hand, when the input signal frequency is high, it is directly supplied to the inverting op-amp input without any intermediary impedance. In other words, slow variations present in the input signal are not being amplified by this configuration, fast variations are however amplified and affect the output signal.

We can highlight that in the second Figure, the output signal is in phase opposition with the input signal. Therefore, the output relation of the differentiator is given by Equation 1 below:. Using the complex notation , Equation 1 can be simplified to Equation 2 , which also gives the transfer function T:. These formulas clearly highlight the fact that the differentiator configuration performs the differentiation operation between the input and output.

From this information, the Bode plots of the ideal differentiator are given in the following Figure 4 :. A major gain limitation arises from the ideal configuration. In practice, when the frequency of the input increases too much, a saturation will start to appear which limits the differentiation operation:.

An improvement that can be made to the differentiator is to place a series resistor in the input branch. This configuration is referred to as a pseudo-differentiator SR for series resistor. From these observations, the asymptotic gain Bode plot is given in Figure 7 below, which is typical of a high-pass filter:. We can conclude by saying that the pseudo-differentiator SR is a good approximation of the ideal differentiator up to the cutoff frequency of the circuit determined by the value of R 1 and the capacitor C.

Another possible modification that can be applied to the ideal differentiator is to place a capacitor in parallel with the resistor in the feedback loop. The circuit presented in Figure 8 will be referred to as pseudo-differentiator PC for parallel capacitor. This is due to the high gain of the ideal Op Amp. When the output is at a level of a few volts, the differential input can be at a level of some tens of microvolts. Hence, V is very close to zero. Replacing I1 and I2 in equation 2 and eliminating V, we can write this equation:.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Home About me Contact. I am curious. Why would you make R1 zero?

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Being an ideal Op Amp, we can consider that the non-inverting input is at the same potential as the inverting input, so V = 0V. This is due to the high gain of. Electronics Tutorial about the Op-amp Differentiator Amplifier circuit which Differentiates the input signal for improved noise rejection. This closed-loop configuration produces a non-inverting amplifier circuit with very good stability, a very high input impedance, Rin approaching infinity, as no.

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