klystron amplifier basics of investing
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Klystron amplifier basics of investing mgc forex member access

Klystron amplifier basics of investing

By continuing is ongoing Inline images without changing information you access remotely the Files as every. The Store of people also use of all. Demo Experience Engineer Massachusetts.

Baikov Andrey. A short summary of this paper. Download Download PDF. Translate PDF. The essential part which would lead to practical scenarios for designing a very of this method is a new bunching technique—bunching with high-efficiency klystron, still needs to be done.

This activity bunch core oscillations. The results of a preliminary study of of the congregated bunch and regularized bunching [4]. In interactions with the klystron RF circuit, the electron beam European Spallation Source, Future Circular Collider, and bunching and the RF power extraction efficiency are limited others, is considered a high priority issue [1].

In general, this by the action of space charge forces. In addition, an increase in efficiency can bring of space charge forces: the smaller the perveance, the weaker substantial reductions in the operational cost electricity the space charge and consequently the stronger the bunching. Commonly, the Since there is an upper technical limit to the voltage that multimegawatt RF klystron amplifier is a key component in can be applied, a low perveance can only be obtained by the RF power production chain.

The vast majority of the operating with low current. For single-beam klystrons, this existing commercial high-power RF klystrons operates in the is incompatible with the need for high power. This situation reflects the by introducing many single beams that interact with common progress over decades of high-power klystron development, RF circuits of the klystron. During the past decade, there has been a targeted by the klystron developers rather than providing high push to develop efficient L-band klystrons for the ILC and European XFEL, and this technology advanced significantly.

Manuscript received June 8, ; revised July 16, ; accepted July 28, The review of this paper was arranged by Editor M. Three vendors have developed 1. AJDisk output window. Example of the five-cavity klystron with Top: electron disks phase trajectories. Efficiency scaling with microperveance. Gray line: AJDisk result.

Bottom: amplitudes of RF current the first and the second harmonics. Thick Light gray line: empirical scaling 1. The simulated parameters of the vertical lines: cavities positions. Similar constraint was concluded in different publications see [17] This technology is now being adopted to develop a MW, for example. The direct scaling of the existing klystrons toward lower frequency and higher operating voltage III.

The hypothetical five-cavity, compacted forming a bunch , and the other part will be 2. In the output cavity, the bunch that later on it could be extended to a MW, eight-beam will be decelerated and the antibunch accelerated. Within the MBK. During optimization, for each value of microperveance, bunch, we can also distinguish the central part core and the the output power was kept constant, and beam voltage and peripheral electrons—those that are located close to the border current were modified accordingly.

As a result, the obtained to the antibunch. To guarantee full energy extraction from the scaling dependence is very similar to that given in 1 beam, the following conditions need to be satisfied. During in simulations using 2. These klystrons forces. That is why for the FS bunch, it is also essential have similar configurations. The RF circuit comprises six cav- that peripherals will not migrate to the antibunch. For the ities including one second-harmonic cavity. One can see good long bunch, this can be fulfilled if there is a certain velocity agreement at least for three tubes between these simulations dispersion along the bunch before it enters the output cavity.

The head of the bunch must be slower than the tail. In this case, In the standard klystron optimization procedure, the para- all the electrons will have the longitudinal velocity component meters are sought to maximize the amplitudes of RF current directed toward the bunch center; such a bunch is called a harmonics at the entrance of the output cavity, i.

The optimal congregation amplitude the bunch. This leads to the specific klystron configuration, velocity spread depends on the actual bunch length and for where each consequent bunching cavity is placed close to the a very short bunch, it is close to zero. The concept of optimal position, where the RF current reaches its local maximum congregation relaxes the demands on strong bunching, which [13]—[16].

During the rest of the RF period, the situation is opposite. This contradicts the conditions of the FS bunch formation formulated above, which require that these particles should receive the maximal longitudinal shift. A possible solution to resolve this inconsistency is to apply a nonmonotonic bunching technique. This method relies on bunch core oscillations, when during bunching the particles within the bunch periodically approach the bunch center and move apart again.

At the same time, the particles from the antibunch continue monotonically approaching the bunch. Such a process is possible if debunching forces that decay toward the bunch periphery can be applied. These are the space charge forces. To a first approximation, the space charge forces are proportional to the charge density gradient. For the particles close to the bunch center and for the particles in antibunch, these forces are weak. Toward the bunch periphery, these forces steadily increase.

The use of these forces allows realization of the following scenario. At the first bunching cavity, particles within the moderately Fig. Illustration of the arrival time function. If the space charge forces are strong enough, the particles within the bunch will progressively change their velocities close to zero velocities, i. This will be repulsed away. At the next bunching cavity, particles will be possible under the condition that in the output cavity will drift toward the bunch center again until the space charge none of the electrons overtake each other.

At the The electron beam as a continuum of 1-D particles same time, the particles from the antibunch will not experience propagating in the longitudinal direction is considered [18]. In general, the in the interaction length. For convenience, we IV. Suppose that at the entrance to the includes the basic parameters of the tube, such as the operating output cavity Z out , the arrival function is modified, as shown frequency, the cathode voltage and total current, the number in Fig. The ideal FS bunch condition of cavities, the diameter of the drift tubes, and the unloaded requires that all the segments in Fig.

The cavity gap length and the impedance can also antibunches should be strictly vertical. This would mean that be incorporated into this class. Their values can be uniquely all the particles from the original T -frame segment AB defined for the optimal performance as the operating frequency have populated only the bunch segment A2 B1.

Obviously and drift tube diameter are fixed. The set of parameters of it is not possible, because in this case, the same original class A specifies a generic klystron. The class B parame- particle A at position Z out should belong to two different ters include the length of the drifts, gain cavities frequency bunches. If we suggest now that particles A1 and A2 are not detuning, cavities loaded Q-factor, and input RF power. For infinitely close with respect to t0 , then through the bunching our analysis, we will consider only the classical klystron they should experience significant relative shifts toward the RF circuit, meaning that an n-stage klystron is equivalent centers of neighboring bunches.

For all intermediate particles to n-cavity klystron. If the frequencies of gain cavities are in the bunch, the displacement should grow monotonically detuned further than the klystron bandwidth, the cavities from the bunch center toward its periphery. Q-factor can be fixed to its unloaded value and can be In the bunching process, the increase of delivered kinetic excluded from the free parameters list.

Gray lines: arrival velocities functions at the exit of the output cavity. To benchmark the two codes, the klystron shown in Fig. The arrival V. This course takes you on a journey through the technologies used in particle accelerators: The microwave system which produce the electromagnetic waves that accelerate particles; The magnet technology for the magnets that guide and focus the beam of particles; The monitoring systems that determine the quality of the beam of particles; Finally the vacuum systems that create ultra high vacuum so that the accelerated particles do not collide with molecules and atoms.

Exciting right! The course is graded through quizzes, one for each of the four modules. Throughout the course there are also a number of training quizzes to offer you support. The four modules in the course are: RF-systems, Magnet technology, Beam diagnostics, and Vacuum techniques. In total there are 48 lectures, where each lecture is a minutes long video presentation. Some of the lectures are followed by short texts with complementary information and all will hopefully be an exciting collection for you to engage with.

Have fun! This course offers a great introdution to particle accelerators and is suitable to almost everyone!! Description of complex devices in particle accelerator field are explained in very lucid way. This module is an introduction to the RF systems of particle accelerators.

RF stand for radio frequency and indicates that the systems deal with electromagnetic waves with frequencies that are common for radio systems. The RF system generates electromagnetic waves and guides them down to cavities. The cavities are located along the beam pipe such that the particles pass through the cavities when they travel along the accelerator. When the waves enter the cavity they create as standing wave inside the cavity. In the module we describe the amplifier, which generates and amplifies the electromagnetic waves.

We describe different types of waveguides which transport the waves from the amplifier to the cavity. We also describe the most common types of cavities. Most of the system is described without equations but in the texts following the lectures you will find some of the theory for the RF-system. The klystron. Enroll for Free. This Course Video Transcript.

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Then, the electron beam DC conductance G 0 defined by the following equation decreases. Since the dimension of the cavity has been decreased and moreover since the power consumption due to the resistance loss of the cavity wall has been increased as above described the amount of heat generation per unit area increases, whereby the resonance frequency is caused to drift due to the thermal expansion of the cavity, thus varying the output of the tube.

Where Q ex represents an external Q determined by the size of coupling means between the output cavity of the klystron and an external circuit. The relationship of equation 2 is determined by conditions necessary to increase the gain and the band width of the tube, and to make equal the high frequency voltage generated across the interaction gap of the output cavity to the direct current beam voltage at the saturation output, thereby increasing the saturation output power.

One example of the prior art klystron amplifier operating in the millimeter wave band is a klystron amplifier having a band center frequency of 35 GH Z and described in B. James and L. According to this invention, there is provided a multi-cavity klystron amplifier of the class comprising an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, an input cavity, a plurality of intermediate cavities and an output cavity, the cavities being sequentially disposed along a path of the electron beam in the order mentioned, drift tubes respectively disposed between adjacent cavities, and a collector electrode disposed at the end of the electron beam path, the cavities and the drift tubes being coaxially disposed, and the amplifier having a pass band having a predetermined frequency width, characterized in that the dimension of the output cavity is selected to satisfy the following relationship.

More particularly, when the diameter of the coupling opening between the output cavity and the output waveguide is increased for the purpose of decreasing Q ex , the amount of electric energy transmitted to the output cavity from the electron beam decreases but the output power would not decrease too much unless the value of Q ex is reduced extremely. Moreover, when Q ex is decreased the bandwidth is increased, and the product of the gain and bandwidth shows the maximum value in the range specified by equation 4.

Further the stability of the operation is improved. A preferred embodiment of a high power multi-cavity klystron amplifier 1 embodying the invention and shown in FIG. A high frequency circuit 6 is contained in the envelope 2 for amplifying a signal wave by subjecting the electron beam 4 to a cumulative electromagnetic interaction.

The high frequency circuit 6 comprises 6 cavities which are sequentially arranged coaxially along the beam path. Adjacent cavities are interconnected by drift tubes 7 and the cavities are classified into an input cavity 6', intermediate cavities 6" and an output cavity 6''' starting from the upstream side.

A signal wave to be amplified is applied to the input cavity 6' on the upstream side of the high frequency circuit 6 through a transmissive air tight window 9 sealed to an input waveguide 8 disposed adjacent the electron gun assembly 3. The amplified signal wave is derived out from the output cavity 6" through a transmissive an tight window 11 via an output waveguide 10 which is disposed adjacent the collector electrode 5.

Usually, the evacuated envelope 2, the high frequency circuit 6 and the collector electrode 5 are maintained at the ground potential and a source 13 is connected to the cathode filament of the electron gun assembly 3 so as to supply a direct current beam voltage V 0 and a direct current beam current I 0 to the tube 1.

For the purpose of improving the band characteristic of the tube each cavity is provided with a well known tuning means 12 that varies the resonance frequency of the cavity, and at least one of the intermediate cavities 6" is connected with an external load resistor In operation, the signal wave to be amplified is applied to the tube 1 through input waveguide 8.

The input signal wave effects a velocity modulation of the electron beam 4 in the input cavity 6' and while the velocity modulated electron beam 4 passes through the drift tube 7 and the intermediate cavities 6" the beam is focused to have a high density.

The kinetic energy of the electron beam 4 thus changed to density modulation from velocity modulation is converted into an electric energy in the output cavity 6''' and then derived out through the output waveguide 10 as an amplified signal wave. The detail of the construction and operation of the output cavity 6''' will now be described with reference to FIG.

Thus, the output cavity 6''' comprises an electroconductive cylinder 21 concentric with the tube axis, and electroconductive end plates 22 at the opposite ends of the cylinder The ends plates 22 are provided with axial openings extending in the direction of the electron beam path for the purpose of passing the electron beam 4 through the output cavities 6'''.

Drift tubes 7 made of copper or the like are connected to the inner surfaces of the end plates to extend in the direction of the electron beam path so as to define an interaction gap or space 23 between the opposing ends of the drift tubes 7.

A portion of the wall of the electroconductive cylinder 21 is constructed to be movable with the tuning means 12, and a coupling opening 24 for the output waveguide 10 is provided through the wall of the cylinder 21 to oppose the tuning means The electron beam 3 which has been focused or concentrated while it passes through the input cavity 6', the intermediate cavities 6" and the drift tubes 7 induces a high frequency current in the wall of the output cavity 6''' thus generating a high frequency voltage across the interaction gap This high frequency voltage functions to decelerate the focused electron beam thereby converting its kinetic energy into an electric energy.

A portion of the electric energy stored in the output cavity 6''' is consumed as a heat energy by the resistance loss in the inner walls of the output cavity, while the remaining portion is sent out to the output waveguide 10 via the coupling opening Thus, the power of the output signal wave derived out through the output waveguide 10 is the difference between the electric energy stored in the output cavity 6''' and the heat energy caused by the resistance loss.

When the external Q ex is increased by decreasing the diameter of the coupling opening 24, the electric energy stored in the output cavity 6''' can be increased, while the resistance loss increases and the band width of the tube is decreased.

The velocity of electrons before entering the buncher cavity is given by,. Where m is the mass of the electron. On substituting the values of e and m, the equation reduces to. When the microwave signal is applied to the input terminal, the gap voltage is given by. V 1 is the amplitude of the signal. Where t 0 is the line at which beam reaches the buncher cavity. The average microwave voltage in the buncher cavity is.

From eq 4. Subsituting eq 6 in eq 5. Substitute eq 8 in eq 7. Tags: Microwave and Radar Engineering. Post a Comment. Previous Post Next Post. Contact form. LinkList ul li ul'. LazyIfy on Scroll by Templateify v1. TickerIfy by Templateify v1.