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|Forex trading strategies ebook||Stock activist investing techniques, the hedge fund manager Edward Lampert took over Sears in and made major changes. He is known for buying large amounts of a company's stock and then pressuring the company to make significant changes stock activist investing techniques order to increase the stock's value. The approach of a traditional value investor relies on company management, industry experts, or Wall Street research to provide relevant information regarding progress towards the value investor's investment thesis. See Exhibit 2. Outsourcing, for instance, is a notionally straightforward way for businesses to lower costs, but the transition can take several months and a quarter or two beyond that for results to hit the bottom line. The poison pill lets the company issue new stock to shareholders to keep the activist's stake small. However, Icahn's war chest has grown not only from the accumulation of the gains from past deals but also thanks to his creation of Icahn Enterprises L.|
|Stock activist investing techniques||And that starts by asking some hard questions. Personal Finance. Typically Icahn would buy a large block of shares in the corporation, then nominate his own a slate of directors for election at the company's annual meeting. Though he reported owning just shares of McDonald's stock, Icahn had been involved for a decade in an effort to stop McDonald's from sourcing pork from suppliers using gestation crates, which limit the movements of pregnant sows, cobb douglas magic formula investing the behest of a daughter who's worked at the Humane Society. Podcast Episodes How Engine No.|
|Stock activist investing techniques||If you're going to pressure a board stock activist investing techniques directors into making big changes, you need to be able to get its attention. This is known as a poison pill. Activists usually have very specific demands. What Is the Icahn Lift? What are the specific goals for the investment? American billionaire investor Carl Icahn is a well-known name among activist shareholders.|
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|Stock activist investing techniques||The world of activism is one of the most colorful in investing. Instead it brought chaos, as units competed against one another for company funds and other resources. You're an activist — that breed of investor that doesn't sit quietly while things go their way, or don't. Podcast Episodes. However, the dialog could be productive of positive changes for the individual investor as well as the activist.|
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The over-arching theme of all these observations is that, in most cases, activism is best viewed and used as an investment tool rather than a stand-alone strategy. We will now discuss these observations in detail, using real-life case studies from recent stock market history to illustrate our points. Activism, when pursued properly, combines a wide range of financial, strategic, operational and governance tools which can create value in a business.
But even this powerful toolkit is seldom potent enough to avoid the damage associated with poor investment selection defined here as either buying a structurally compromised business or paying too much for a good business. Many of the most successful activists that we interact with consider themselves stock-pickers first, with their activist tools representing an attractive means of increasing their returns, and, importantly, accelerating the realisation of those returns which is simply another way of increasing returns.
In contrast, activist tools deployed against a structurally compromised business may limit or decelerate investment losses but rarely reverse them, and overpaying for a decent business simply subtracts from any subsequent returns generated by activist programmes. In summary, we believe that investors should use activist tools as a way of enhancing and accelerating great stock-picking returns, rather than as the sole source of those returns. BBI is a well-known operator and franchiser of entertainment-related stores including movie, video game and television series rentals in the US and internationally.
In March , Blockbuster withdrew its bid, citing delays in obtaining regulatory clearance for the deal. However, the ongoing decline in the store-based video rental industry, driven by the continued shift to alternative rental formats, proved too difficult a hurdle to surmount.
As a result, in August , the company withdrew its financial estimates for the year. By the end of , bankruptcy concerns loomed, and the company stated that in it would further reduce costs and lower capital expenditures. In September of that year, an activist hedge fund disclosed a 4. Same store sales exceeded Wall Street expectations each month and margins improved thanks to profitable offerings such as upscale salads, white-meat chicken and coffee.
This case study illustrates how great stock selection drives investment returns even in the absence of a fully-realised activist programme. We believe that a dedicated activist strategy should be driven by a collection of skills and tools available to the activist manager. No manager can be a master of all trades, but within the activist space we prefer managers who enjoy a combination of value-creation capabilities. There are dozens of relevant tools, but generally they can be aggregated into four broad categories:.
The availability of multiple value-creation tools gives the activist manager added flexibility in dealing with the inevitable surprises and setbacks involved in any business initiative. And finally, by using different tools in combination, the activist investors can turn good investment outcomes into great ones.
These concessions were reportedly the largest ever offered by any Korean company to fend off a takeover. The radical transformation and revaluation of publicly-traded financial exchanges in the last several years bears testament to the value creation that can be generated by using multiple activist tools in combination. Wall Street coverage was virtually non-existent.
Additionally, many national bourses outside the US, though corporate in form, were still managed as quasi-public trusts, with profit motives taking a backseat to providing a utility-like national service. Reflecting these factors, many exchanges traded at multiples of x earnings, a steep discount to general market averages.
In , several activist hedge funds began to closely examine the financial exchanges. What they saw were existing business fundamentals and opportunities for improvement that made the stocks seem deeply undervalued. Their insights covered three key areas:. With these insights in mind, the activist investors embarked on a campaign to focus the investment community on the value embedded in the exchanges, and to promote fundamental changes in the three areas described above.
The activist campaign, which initially was conducted outside the public sphere, focused on the management teams and boards of the exchanges, the sell-side analyst community and other buy-side investors, including other hedge funds and traditional managers. Beyond this particular event, the DB battle further highlighted the value of the exchange business.
As markets began to recognise the high-growth, high-return potential of these businesses and increasingly understood that they would be managed for profit, valuations more than doubled, with most exchanges today valued at a premium level of around x earnings. Although recent years have seen activist campaigns across a broad swath of industries and business types, we do not think all situations are created equal when it comes to activism.
In fact, target selection is one of the most critical decisions facing the activist investor and certain types of businesses lend themselves better to activism than others. Specifically, businesses whose intrinsic value lies in their physical assets or their brand name make better targets than those which are highly dependent on people generally, and a few key people specifically. While this tension may ultimately result in value creation at the company, the attendant disruption often imposes financial costs.
Businesses whose value lies in hard assets or durable public brands are less likely to be crippled by such turbulence, whereas turmoil can exact a very serious value-destruction toll in businesses which depend on a few key individuals. To illustrate the importance of target selection, we examine two relevant cases below: One in which activism against a people-dependent business created a large investment loss, and one in which an aggressive activist programme in a brand-driven, asset-supported business led to a successful investment outcome.
These broadsides led to a deep and emotional defence of the company by John A Levin and the other members of the management team. Today, according to its most recent regulatory filing, BKF has "no operating business and no assets under management. The BKF story demonstrates the importance of target selection in activist investing. Businesses that are highly dependent on a few people may suffer materially from the disruptions associated even with a relatively friendly activist campaign.
While KMRT is certainly much more than just an example of good target selection, this aspect of the story contrasts nicely with the BKF situation. The KMRT activist story goes back to , when the struggling old-line retailer then known as the Kmart Corporation was forced into bankruptcy by a host of financial and competitive problems. In January of , a prominent hedge fund emerged as the controlling stakeholder in the company. Many market observers wondered aloud what value could be wrung out of a tarnished brand that was competing directly with Wal-Mart, the juggernaut of the mass-retailing industry.
And there was no shortage of adjustments. This period of rapid change also saw fairly significant turnover in senior management at KMRT. While some critics focused on the poor financial performance and competitive positioning of the KMRT business and fretted over the multiple uncertainties attending the changes at the company, they arguably missed the larger story: KMRT was extremely asset-rich and had a number of recognised brand names such as Martha Stewart, Footstar and the like.
Those revenues suggested very strong staying power for the business, even in the face of corporate change. Activist investing is the practice of buying a large amount of a company's stock with the goal of gaining influence and pressuring the leadership team to make a specific set of changes to the enterprise.
Activist investors push for changes that would increase the company's share price or benefit the activist investor directly. Companies that are poorly managed, have inefficient operations, or face some other solvable problem are common targets of activist investors, who often specialize in only certain types of enterprises.
Typically, activist investors operate hedge funds or private equity firms, or they are high-net-worth individuals. Activist investors typically also have professional analytical skills and substantial business expertise. They use these qualifications to identify companies with untapped value and develop and deliver to the companies themselves specific strategy recommendations to capture that value.
An activist investor's recommendations can range from strategic initiatives, such as restructuring the company, to changing the composition of the board of directors. An activist investor might demand a personal seat on a company's board or insist on the appointment of certain independent directors. The activist investor may even target specific directors for removal. Activist investors' campaigns, while potentially very profitable, do not generally have high success rates.
That being said, this is how an activist investor usually operates:. That filing is a clue for many investors that the company is of interest to an activist investor. While activist investors directly engage with boards of directors to argue for their proposed changes, they also make their demands public. Many activist investors use the 13D filing to announce their demands, and they also use social media, press releases, media appearances, interviews, and published reports to gain broad shareholder support.
Publicity and shareholder support strengthens the negotiating position of an activist investor, although a company may still strenuously resist the activist investor's demands. Stalled negotiations between the activist investor and the company typically escalate into a proxy fight for control of the company's board of directors. An activist investor who successfully collaborates with other shareholders to win control of the board then has enough influence to ensure that his or her desired changes are made.
While activist investors who also hold board seats may have restrictions on selling their stock holdings, they generally sell their shares once the company has implemented their recommendations. Activist investing is a form of value investing , albeit an aggressive one. Value investors analyze certain business fundamentals to identify those companies that are undervalued.
While traditional or passive value investors believe the share price of an undervalued company will naturally and gradually increase to reflect the company's true worth, activist value investors are determined to increase an undervalued company's worth more quickly by demanding specific interventions.
Activist investors see weaknesses or problems resulting in undervaluations, but they also envision solutions in the form of strategic initiatives that they believe will increase shareholder value. The specific initiatives proposed by activist investors can be divided into these four categories:. Some mutual funds and exchange-traded funds ETFs can also provide exposure to shareholder activism for individual investors. The mutual fund's average annual return between and was The ETF owns shares in 39 companies at the present time.