A total of In intervention group, the GOS Aedes index ranged between 0. In addition, as illustrated in Fig. The mean GOS Aedes index decreased by This indicated weekly deployment of GOS trap can reduce mosquito abundance.
The black dotted curve is a trend decomposition of GOS Aedes index in the respective group. In control group, the GOS Aedes index ranged between 0. Aedes aegypti was more abundant than Ae. In addition, the mean GOS Aedes index increased by Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes was examined between the different blocks.
The number of Aedes mosquitoes trapped were unevenly distributed among floors in the apartment blocks. As presented in Table 3 , in the intervention group, more Ae. Whereas in the control group more Ae. On the other hand, Ae. Even among the apartments from similar area, the dominant species at each apartment varied. Moreover, a high abundance of Culex spp. The time series plot for each intervention apartments is displayed in Supplementary File 2: Fig.
S1 A—D. Analysis of individual intervention apartments indicated more cases occur in apartments predominated by Ae. Whereas fewer cases were reported from apartments with predominant Ae. In addition, the distribution of dengue cases by floors collectively for both study groups were examined Supplementary File 2 Fig. Overall, more dengue cases were reported from lower floors of apartment blocks regardless of groups.
However, by proportion, the dengue cases from lower floors were predominantly contributed by the intervention group whereas those from higher floors by the control group. Correspondingly, this may be due to the higher Ae. Throughout this study, 71 out of pools 6. Figure 2 shows the distribution of dengue serotypes in the mosquitoes and dengue cases weekly.
The DENV-2 A surge in DENV-3 Similarly, dengue cases were seen to increase during this period. Seventy-seven pools of dengue NS1 antigen positive mosquitoes were detected from the intervention group. The relationships of the number of dengue cases with the number of NS1 antigen positive pools and GOS index are depicted in Fig. The first dengue-positive mosquito was seen in the same week when cases were reported.
As illustrated in Fig. Weekly GOS index, the onset of dengue cases and dengue NS1 positive pool throughout the study period in the intervention group. This indicates that the presence of NS1 positive mosquitoes implies an increased risk of transmission and occurrence of dengue cases. A total volunteers were tested for the presence of dengue virus following detection of dengue positive mosquitoes in proximity to their residences in 41 weeks of sampling out of the 75 weeks.
The residents were approached with the approval of management bodies in the same week upon detection of dengue-positive mosquito pools. Among those tested, 14 3. Upon one month follow-up of these individuals, 6 1. Real time PCR performed at the end of the of the trial retrospectively revealed 34 8. These individuals did not show any sign and symptom of dengue during sampling time.
Therefore, the most notable finding was uncovering individuals infected with the dengue virus upon detection of dengue-positive mosquitoes. Part of the sampling result has been published in Tan, et al. In the intervention group, residents 86 males and females participated in the pre-KAP assessment Supplementary Table S2 , and residents 94 male and female participated in the post-KAP assessment study Supplementary Table S3.
There were more female participants Most respondents opined that the surveillance method used in this study was either good On the other hand, 8 respondents felt uncomfortable having health authorities visiting their premises. In Malaysia, dengue control and surveillance mechanism have not changed since s. Routine house-to-house Aedes larval survey followed by source reduction and chemical control when cases were reported remains mainstay dengue control measure in Malaysia and most Southeast Asian countries 14 , 17 , Although it has been reported that these methods lack effectiveness in the current scenario, they are still being used 12 , 18 , Therefore, this randomized control trial is to establish an integrated dengue surveillance incorporating entomological, virological, and clinical systems to detect early cases, followed by immediate and targeted prevention and control measures.
First and foremost, the intervention has contributed to dengue case control. BACI analysis revealed a On the other hand, dengue case ratio increased in the negative control group which received only the standard vector control measures by MOH. Although, the GLMM model indicated no difference between the number of cases recorded between intervention and control groups, this was mainly due to the higher number of cases in one of the intervention apartments while significantly lower number of cases was recorded for the other three intervention apartments.
This apartment was the only apartment that reported multiple outbreaks throughout the study period. This may be due to an outbreak ongoing in this apartment even before the trial started. Moreover, it can be linked to population density and mobilization effects, as that one apartment is surrounded by shops and consists of 19 blocks where high population movement occurs. The movement of viraemic individuals in and out of this area may be infecting the mosquitoes A dense population has also been postulated as one of the factors causing increased dengue virus transmission 33 , Likewise, in our earlier KAP and seroprevalence study, there was a significant association between dengue IgG positivity and type of residential buildings This surveillance method also removes infected mosquitoes that drive dengue transmissions without the use of insecticide.
Comparison of GOS Aedes index at the beginning and at the end of the trial revealed a reduction in mosquito abundance in the intervention group. In contrast, fogging and ULV using pyrethroid which were carried out when cases were reported in the control apartments, did not affect the total number of mosquitoes caught. A continuous increase in GOS Aedes index can been seen in apartments in the control group.
Although the insecticide resistance status of mosquito population in the study was not investigated, insecticide resistance is highly prevalent especially in dengue hotspot areas in Selangor 20 , It should be noted that the GOS trap is not the sole intervention of this trial. The positive outcomes of this trial can be attributed to the early public alert of communities and health authorities followed by the early preventive actions taken, which were all triggered by proactive surveillance using the GOS trap.
Thus, upon detection of a dengue-positive mosquitoes in housing units especially high-rise apartments, more targeted actions such as house inspection, notification, intense education, or search destroy can be taken as an alternative intervention. The GOS traps are very cheap and can be easily made.
Surveillance using the GOS traps can be carried out by the community with help from the health authorities. In this study, Ae. Correspondingly, the apartments and floors with high number of Ae. It can be postulated that the predominance of Ae. Previous studies have indicated Ae. Hence, spatial heterogeneity of the Ae. The result of this randomized control trial further supports the notion that dengue surveillance using GOS trap and dengue NS1 test can detect dengue-positive mosquitoes before dengue cases were reported 24 , In Singapore, treatment site with higher Gravitrap aegypti index found to be associated with higher mean number of dengue cases per week However, other studies have reported that the Aedes index does not always reflect dengue transmission 41 , Moreover, the significant positive correlation of dengue cases with the number of NS1 positive mosquito pool shows detection of dengue positive mosquito can be used as an indicator of viral transmission.
This is similar to findings in Thailand where only infected Aedes were positively associated with dengue cases Thus, NS1 positive mosquitoes and monitoring adult mosquito index as carried out in this study, should be a good indicator for initiation of vector control instead of dengue case. Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using abdomen or whole mosquito provides reliable results because NS1 antigen tests are rapid and the NS1 antigen is stable, while viral RNA may degrade over time.
This proactive surveillance further introduces a paradigm of a targeted and early detection of dengue serotype shift using dengue NS1 positive mosquitoes. In Malaysia, the serotype distribution has been inconsistent and switching of DENV serotype is a significant cause of outbreak 4 , However interestingly, a surge in the DENV-3 serotype was detected in the dengue NS1 positive mosquitoes during mid-year which corresponded to high occurrence of dengue cases in humans.
It has been documented that the introduction of DENV-3 was often associated with outbreaks of severe dengue in other countries like Brazil 45 , China 46 and Indonesia Thus, virological surveillance in NS1 positive mosquito samples can serve as an epidemic alert system and hence continuous monitoring should be considered. On another note, the detection of asymptomatic viraemic individuals in this trial clearly showed the presence of asymptomatic cases, which have otherwise been largely ignored in dengue surveillance and control.
Yet there is a lack of information on the epidemiology of asymptomatic dengue. In Thailand, of the 5. Symptomatic secondary dengue infection and inapparent dengue may also have nearly equal incidence among elementary students Even though the prevalence of inapparent dengue varies by geographical location, time, and demography 51 , 52 , 53 , it has been reported that such individuals which include asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic, and sub-clinical cases can still transmit dengue to mosquitoes In previous studies such individuals were detected from a mass clinical study 22 or retrospective studies 57 , 58 , which made it challenging to predict dengue transmissions among asymptomatic individuals.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates a dengue surveillance system which is able to capture asymptomatic, dengue-viraemic individuals living in an area with infected mosquitoes. Duong, et al. This could mean that the existing, reactive actions taken to control dengue transmission after the initial reports of dengue cases, are delayed and hence likely to be, futile as the disease would have been widespread by then Infected Aedes mosquitoes can serve as an early warning and identification of such mosquitoes should be the way forward for proactive dengue surveillance and control measures.
Therefore, it is essential that the community understand and adopts positive attitudes towards dengue monitoring and control effects. Our earlier findings before the trial started 35 are similar to results of previous studies showing Malaysian communities generally have good knowledge of dengue and a positive attitude on dengue prevention, but these are not translated to good practices of dengue prevention 59 , 60 , Post-trial intervention revealed a significant increase in the number of residents having good practices towards dengue prevention.
This could have been due to our active engagement with the community by providing warnings of an impending outbreak and prompting them to be more vigilant and to keep their residences free of breeding sites. Active health campaign in collaboration with COMBI team and notification of dengue-positive mosquitoes through social media, posters and banners actively kept them aware of the dengue situation within their housing units. However, respondents did not show a significant increase in attitude scores after the trial.
A similar observation was obtained from KAP studies 62 , 63 when assessing attitudes-beliefs change after conducting dengue educational board game. This could be rationalized by the fact that multiple interventions over more extended periods are needed to change attitude and beliefs relating to health. This randomized control trial provides a proactive and targeted surveillance not only to prevent and control dengue disease, but also Zika and chikungunya viruses if they are present in the mosquitoes.
However, several problems have been encountered such as missing traps, trap tampering, and the unwillingness of residents to have traps placed directly beside their premises during initial stage of the trial. Nevertheless, some of these issues were overcome by educating and explaining the importance to the residents and towards the end, participating residents were more welcoming of this approach.
Another limitation of the study was its relatively short duration of one and a half years. Arguably, surveillance over a more extended period of two to three years would provide better and more robust evidence. On another note, this randomised control trial has employed architecturally different apartments as units of item of randomisation instead of individual blocks. Nonetheless, the advantages of the surveillance method described here lie in its simplicity and demonstrated efficacy.
As mentioned, Thus, this proactive paradigm makes it an integrated vector management system and can be implemented in a bottom-up fashion. As a result, the GOS trap and dengue NS1 antigen test, may be used as a dengue surveillance tool to augment the existing monitoring and control system, in line with the advocated integrated vector management approach for reducing Aedes -borne diseases.
This approach is useful in high-rise urban areas where people live close to each other, and few infected mosquitoes can transmit dengue to many people. This community-based, parallel-cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted at eight apartments of Damansara Damai or Petaling Jaya Utara 10 3. This interventional trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.
No: Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. The study adhered to the principles of biomedical research involving human subjects. Specifically, the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of the research subjects, in addition to the credibility and accuracy of the reported results, will be protected as per the Declaration of Helsinki. The participants were not reimbursed in any form. The study protocol has been published previously Figure 5 shows the flowchart of the study trial.
It were chosen because it is "closed" area there is only one main entrance and exit to this area , it has sufficient number of high-rise apartments and it being a dengue hotspot. In brief, eight residential apartments were selected and four each were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups.
In the intervention group, GOS traps were placed and checked weekly. When the NS1 test was positive, flyers and posters were disseminated within two days to notify the affected apartment's management and residents that dengue-positive mosquito es had been detected.
The residents were briefly reminded to take necessary precautionary measures against dengue and perform search-and-destroy activities. In addition, upon detection of NS1 positive mosquitoes people residing within a radius of 50 m from the trap were requested to undergo finger-prick NS1 antigen test door-to door to detect occurrences of asymptomatic dengue The samplings were performed in tandem with the intervention of the trial, which is during notification of dengue positive mosquitoes in the neighbourhood and education on dengue prevention.
Upon written consent, details like age, any recent signs and symptoms, history of dengue infection and family history of dengue infection were taken. Three blood spots were made on a Whatman Filter Paper. As per the manufacturer's instructions, results were interpreted within 15 to 20 min. Individuals positive for dengue NS1 antigen were advised to take precautionary measures to protect themselves and others from mosquito bites by applying repellent, and to seek medical attention if symptoms occurred.
Dengue NS1-positive individuals without any signs and symptoms were followed up for 4 weeks to determine further development of any signs and symptoms of dengue. Occasionally, the research team also organized health campaign and search and destroy activities in collaboration with the management bodies and Communication for Behavioural Impact COMBI team when continuous increase in GOS Aedes index was detected in the apartment.
On the other hand, a reduced number of GOS traps were placed in the control group, once a month for entomological survey only All apartments in this study were subjected to regular and normal vector control measures by Ministry of Health. The measures consisted of pyrethroid-fogging at the apartments when new dengue cases were reported.
Larval surveys were also conducted depending on the severity of the outbreaks and the availability of manpower 4. In addition, assessment on knowledge, attitude, and practice KAP toward dengue prevention was conducted before and after the trial in the intervention group using a self-administered questionnaire. Additional questions about their feedback and receptiveness on the new method of dengue surveillance were also asked in the post-KAP survey.
The result of the KAP assessment in all eight participating apartments before the trial started has already been published The GOS index calculation was adapted from Ong, et al. Functional GOS traps refer to fully assembled GOS traps where the inner-lining brown paper with sticky glue remained in the small container. Traps that were empty, destroyed, missing, without inner-lining brown paper were considered non-functional.
The weekly dengue cases data were obtained from the District Health office. Under the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act, it is mandatory for all private and public health facilities to notify all clinically diagnosed and laboratory confirmed dengue cases within 24 h of diagnosis to the nearest health office 6. The residential address and onset date of each dengue case were obtained and anonymized prior to analysis.
Entomological data analyses were performed using R programming language version 3. Two-tailed Mann—Kendall test was conducted to identify the presence of trends in the weekly and monthly GOS Aedes index in intervention and control groups, using the rank-test function. One-tailed Mann Kendall test was then used to further analyse if the determined trends were of increasing or decreasing trend. Generalized linear mixed models GLMM using glmmTMB package were constructed to analyse the number of mosquitoes caught per week per trap, number of dengue NS1 positive mosquitoes and dengue incidence; and differences in mosquitoes caught at different apartments, blocks, and floors.
In GLMM testing, the frequency of sampling whether weekly or monthly was considered a fixed factor Intervention. The different apartments having the same sampling frequency were nested under each group. Sampling occasions was used as a random factor. As the number of traps that were recovered varied each week, offset for traps was used.
Poisson distribution and zero inflation were also incorporated in the analysis. The trap data for different apartments, blocks and floors were also subjected to GLMM to determine if there was any difference between the number of mosquitoes trapped. This was done separately for weekly and monthly trapping frequency for different floors.
Models testing associations between response variables e. Tukey post hoc contrasts were used to differentiate the nature of statistical differences between different levels of the explanatory variables. A before-after control impact BACI statistical design was used to examine the effect of the intervention on dengue transmission 29 to compensate for temporal and seasonal differences between the intervention and control groups.
The change in the dengue case ratio of the study site before and after trap deployment was calculated. A scoring system was utilized to evaluate the KAP data as published earlier Moreover, changes in KAP levels among residents were analysed using the unpaired t-test. Dengue and Severe Dengue. Bhatt, S. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature , — Dengue Situations Update Mudin, R. Dengue incidence and the prevention and control program in Malaysia. Google Scholar.
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Packierisamy, P. Cost of dengue vector control activities in Malaysia. Leong, C. Enzymatic and molecular characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in field populations of Aedes aegypti from Selangor, Malaysia. Vectors 12 , From to , he was President of Profilium Inc, a location based services wireless software company with patented technology for geo-profiling of mobile subscribers ranked in the top technology companies in Canada and in the top 20 wireless organizations in Canada for and source: Branham Group.
Prior to joining Demon Systems, Mr. Legendre practiced corporate and commercial law for 6 years with 2 prominent law firms in Montreal, Canada. Legendre obtained his civil law degree from the University of Ottawa in and has been a member of the Quebec Bar and Canadian Bar Associations since After his studies, Andy joined the elite Administrative Service and spent eight years with the Singapore Defense and Finance Ministries.
Upon completion of his eight-year bond with the Singapore Government in , Andy chose the path of an entrepreneur. Andy is currently the founder and Chairman of private equity firm tembusu Partners and the Chairman and substantial shareholder of a publicly listed company, AdvanceSCt Ltd. GHECO is a vehicle to develop power generation projects in thailand and in certain neighboring countries under the thai Independent Power Producer Program and future similar programs in thailand for the purchase of power from independent power producers.
Chatikavanij is Director of several subsidiaries under the Glow Group of Companies, which he founded and developed. Prior to joining the Glow Group, Mr. Before entering the power generation sector, he worked as an analyst at Credit Suisse First Boston in Singapore.
Chatikavanij is the Founder of the Association of Private Power Producers in thailand and served as its Chairman in He is married to Kasama Chatikavanij and the y have two daughters. Aurelio R. Montinola holds important leadership roles in several o the r top corporations in the Philippines. In addition to his corporate roles, Mr. Montinola is also active in highly recognized civic organizations and foundations.
Basil Ong is Director of W. In addition to his roles in business, Mr. Ong holds key positions in distinguished organizations. He is responsible for the monitoring, control and reporting internal functions and the management of accounting and o the r backoffice staff.
Schuerch joined Indochina Capital in September Prior to joining Indochina Capital, from to , Mr. Schuerch received a Masters degree in Economics from the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland in ILC International Legal Consultants advises in international business transactions and advises European clients for licensed business setup in the financial sector of Singapore.
ILC also specializes in international tax structuring including Asia-Pacific specific solutions. Prior to his current roles, Mr. He was admitted into the Bar in and in became a registered 43 Profiles of Participants foreign lawyer in Singapore. Weber is married to Ineke Marianne Olsson and the y have 2 children.
Chairul tanjung is one of the central figures in the Indonesian business landscape and is also very active in various social activities. Warta Ekonomi named him one of the 10 most influential business figures in Indonesia in Looking into the future, Mr. Born in , Mr. Pt Bank Mega tbk Jl. Kapten tendean Kav. In January , Ms. In March , Ms. Prior to joining Ascendas, Ms. In , Ms. Chong obtained a Masters in Business Administration from the same university. Chong was registered as a licensed valuer in and has also completed the Advanced Management Programme at Harvard Business School in Chris Kanter was born in Manado, Indonesia.
He is a family man with a daughter and two sons. He is a graduate of Engineering from trisakti University, Indonesia. He is the Chairman and Founder of Sigma Sembada Group of Companies which is a major player in turnkey projects, transportation and logistics.
He has served as Vice President of Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry since , in charge of Investment, transportation, Information and telecommunication, and tourism. As a previous trusted assignment, Mr. Kanter served as a member of People Consultative Congress of the Republic of Indonesia from - Kanter spends his leisure time through sports.
HR Rasuna Said x-5 Kav. Prior to rejoining CfBt, Mr. Bell enjoys outdoor recreational activities, languages, travel and reading. He is married to a Malaysian, Noraini Abdul Ghani. Daniel Kaali is an international marketing communications and intelligence entrepreneur with social science and business background.
He is exploring partnership opportunities in international media and seeks innovative approaches to the management of developing country information. Daniel is currently the Managing Director of AxeleraMedia. AxeleraMedia is a privately held business focused on helping developing countries throughout Asia, Europe and the Americas achieve the ir global branding goals.
Daniel and his team pull toge the r powerful networks of international organizations, government agencies, institutions, associations, corporations and influential individuals to communicate valuable investment, trade and tourism opportunities to targeted business communities through premium media outlets. His interests are marathon training and competition, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, wakeboarding, kite-surfing, scuba-diving, bikram yoga and digital photography.
Darren On is a regional businessman who has a wealth of knowledge and experience in business strategy development; joint ventures and strategic partnerships; forecasting, budgeting and cost control; pricing strategies and product introduction; strategic and operational planning; and human capital management. His abilities in decisionmaking and execution — coupled with successfully implementing projects with Government Ministries in Brunei and key corporations including Alcatel and DSt Group — make Darren an entrepreneur with highly-qualified skills and experiences to build successful businesses.
He is responsible for the decision-making in the areas of sales, marketing, finance, human resources and administrative affairs. He spunoff telnet as a specialist in telecom infrastructure systems integration, to be a consortium partner of Lucent technologies USA for the biggest optic transmission system in Brunei for key international events: the Sou the ast Asian Games and the APEC Leaders Summit Darren subsequently established and led the Brunei office of CommVerge Solutions Asia to tap the opportunities available in the dynamic local telecom market.
Darren is also an avid golfer. Besides his entrepreneurial skills, he has exceptional interpersonal skills and moves comfortably in the social community as well as the business world. For the past 3 years, Mr. In business and financial management, he completed advanced courses for senior-level executives and graduated in from the Amos tuck school of Business Administration in the US. His primary hobby is corporate finance investment.
In recent years, VAC Group has been instrumental in the rapid development and continued progress of the media landscape and consumer reach through better program content and choices. VAC Group is a pioneer of sponsorship television and creator of new primetime belts for tV broadcasting. Group billing for the year reached USD 70 million, ranking it first in the industry in Vietnam. Vietnam Advertising Pasteur St. Magsaysay is present in regions with rich sources of men or women from the Philippines, Indonesia, thailand, China, Eastern Europe and Central America and North America.
Its shipping arm, Magsaysay transport and Logistics Group, operates in the Philippine trade with container liner and tanker services. Ho is also active in key civic organizations 51 Profiles of Participants and foundations. Magsaysay Group of Companies 50 t. Practicing open concept and bottom-top management practice, he has more than years of management and business experience.
Having established a good relationship and rapport with Venture Capitalists and authorities, Farith was the Advisor to Venture , which promotes innovative and successful business models among Malaysians. He is also a co-founder and current advisor of the New Entrepreneur Forum NEF which among o the r established to promote the development of Bumiputera ICt entrepreneurs or technopreneurs. He sits on o the r advisory boards both in the public and private sectors which focus mainly on Industry and Netpreneur development in Malaysia.
He was a key team member in the Corporate Finance and Capital Market divisions. He has in-depth knowledge about corporate restructuring, corporate 52 financing and financial re-engineering. He the n moved on to Road Builder M Holdings Berhad and was responsible for its business development in property and infrastructure projects. At Road Builder, he was instrumental in securing numerous privatization projects relating to property and infrastructure.
Prior to joining SKALI as its President, Farith led a team to turn around a local manufacturing company involved in the building materials industry. In his four-year stint as CEO of this company, he earned valuable experience in managing the day-to-day and hands-on operations of two factories employing employees. SNAP creates and adds fur the r value for investors, Netpreneurs and communities in general by sharing an in-depth knowledge base and widening the reach of Internet opportunities.
Fauziah Dato Seri Paduka Hj talib is the Managing Partner of IQ-Quest Company, a Brunei-based consulting firm providing expertise in a wide range of industries including technology and communications, financial services, energy resources and materials, travel and tourism, and transportation, supply chain and logistics.
In she started her career with the Brunei Investment Agency where she undertook a challenging property asset management portfolio in the Real Estate, Gold and Oil Unit. After a rewarding period working in the public service arena, Fauziah pursued several entrepreneurial ventures that led to the formation of IQ-Quest in She was also a founding member and treasurer on the executive committee of the young Entrepreneurs Association Brunei. Fauziah was educated in the United Kingdom with a degree in Computing and Chemistry.
Florence Koh Lee Kheng is a member of the Bar and was active in legal practice since to She largely acted as counsel and legal advisor to many local and international insurance and reinsurance companies. From to she was advisor and legal consultant to the Governor and Province of Riau, Indonesia. She is conversant and literate in Bahasa Malaysia and Indonesia. Hence has much experience in negotiations and advisory work in Indonesia. Apart from legal advisory practice, Ms.
Koh has for the last 20 years been in a family trust council overseeing substantial assets and investments management, and continues to do so. She moved into entrepreneurship in and has established a property development company known as Consult Asia Pte Ltd. Consult Asia Pte Ltd No. He has had broad experience in merchant banking, crossborder mergers and acquisitions, corporate finance, investments and general management. In the last 15 years, Mr. In the process, he has dealt with a variety of international investors and public securities markets.
From , Mr. Ficorinvest was profitable within a year. It became the largest, most profitable Indonesian merchant bank within two years — a position it maintained for over a dozen subsequent years. During this same period, he also co-founded a joint venture with the leading Indonesian development banks, providing advisory and management services to the ir clients. Estrada has served on the boards of over 30 private and public companies in Asia, the U.
Formed in , ISCOS is a social enterprise with the primary aim of helping ex-offenders re-integrate gainfully into society. As Executive Director, Freda assumes the important roles of leader, visionary, decisionmaker and manager. Her responsibilities include advising the Board, looking to the 56 future for change opportunities, decides or guides courses of action in operations staff and oversees operations of ISCOS.
Possessing skills of operational and strategic thinking, Mr. Kencana has played roles in highly reputable universities as a visiting lecturer or a full-time lecturer. Kencana is multilingual and speaks English, Japanese, Indonesian and Chinese languages fluently. During his spare time, Mr. Kencana enjoys golf, bowling, hiking, up-sailing, tennis and table tennis. His long term objective is to continually enhancing personal as well as professional growth, cultivating knowledge into action and exchanging and sharing knowledge with o the rs to help the m to achieve the ir best results.
Red Pyramid Change Consulting Jl. Pinangsia No. Rico is the holding company of a group of family owned businesses. Educated in Brunei and in Melbourne, Australia she majored in business and minored in law and marketing. In , Gwen started her career as auditor in Coopers and Lybrand now known as PricewaterhouseCoopers. In she joined Great Eastern Life Assurance Co as a life planner and since, has maintained her association with Great Eastern to service her policyholders.
In , Gwen was the founding member and vice president on the executive committee of the young Entrepreneurs Association of Brunei yEAB. Amongst her current business interests Gwen is also active in participating in business related conferences as panel speaker and has often represented Brunei under the capacity 58 of yEAB or as a delegate. She is supportive in developing a knowledge-based service in the healthcare industry and encourages continued medical education worldwide. With the consensus of the Ministry of Health, this includes fur the r involvement in the sponsorship of medical doctors and nurses toward continuous education and professional growth within the industry in Brunei and abroad.
Rico Agencies No. He successfully led the change of Pt Global Mediacom tbk from a conglomerate into a company with a focus on the media and telecommunication sectors. He has been a speaker in various seminars as well as lecturer of Corporate Finance, Investments and Strategic Management for post graduate programs in various universities. Kebon Sirih No.
He has broad responsibilities in strategy setting, resource allocation, day to day management of the business, and representing Mekong Securities in relationship with the Government, clients, and the public. Prior to his current position, he spent four years as a Vice President in Corporate Advisory playing a key role in all aspects of deal execution with a particular emphasis on financial and technical analysis and legal issues.
Prior to his education in the US, he received a B. Ha Viet is a Vietnamese citizen and is currently residing in Hanoi with his family. Helena has 20 years of publishing experience and 15 years senior management regional business role. From to , she played a major role in planning and organizing major conferences and summits in China, Malaysia, Indonesia and South Korea. Helena brought about the highest circulation growth in Asia positioning IHt as the regional leader in circulation and readership.
Helena sits in the management team involving in all decision-making processes for Asia operations. Henry B. As the founding partner of the Fund, Henry splits his time between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, which affords him access to both government and business leaders. One of three General Partners, Henry concentrates on fund strategy, governmental relations, general management and operations, and communications. Henry received a B. He is also the Founder and President of Infotronix, an outsourcing services company for information and communication technology, and Managing Partner of P2W Consulting, a human resources management and development company.
Before Mr. He studied Economics at the Economics Institute, University of Colorado where he graduated cum laude. Hilman has received several awards and 63 Profiles of Participants distinctions. Hilman and his wife, Linda, have two daughters, and stay at a suburb of Jakarta. He enjoys reading, walking, swimming, listening to music and traveling. Besides his experience in the finance industry, he also has extensive general management, 65 Profiles of Participants operational analysis and improvement experience from Europe, North and South America within the oil and gas, software and health care industries.
Hoang holds a M. He is responsible for designing, directing and managing the daily operations of the company. Jason tai is one of those rare people who balances the ir commitments to family, work, community and social life. He sits on the Boards of some twenty companies including several outside the Group. Over the years, Jason has willingly shouldered the responsibility of representing his country, industry and company in numerous delegations, missions and working visits to countries around the world.
And yet, despite all this, he still manages 67 Profiles of Participants to find and devote time to youth-causerelated community work especially in the Special Olympics movement in Malaysia, an international sports organization dedicated to empowering individuals with mental disabilities to become physically fit, productive and respected members of society through sports training and competition. Jason is 44, a loving husband, and counts among his passions a penchant for arts and culture in general, and architecture and design in particular.
His total experience has foundation spread over multiple industries and responsibilities at various levels. He was also with Contract Advertising India Ltd. Joseph holds an economics degree and a 68 post-graduate diploma in marketing. He is a visiting-guest-industry-speaker with various educational institutions. He graduated with Honours in Within a short span of time, Kevin has immersed himself in the industry and taken on several portfolios in organizations related to the cleaning industry.
More recently, Kevin has also joined the ranks of the young Entrepreneurs Organisation and the young Business Forum as a member. Landon is responsible for deal origination, structuring and negotiation, portfolio management, exit processes and investor relations and manages relationships with portfolio companies DreamViet, iSphere Software, Punch Entertainment, and VinaPay.
His 70 duties included providing support to the team leader on a joint project with the Palestinian National Authority to improve the delivery of social services to the Palestinian population. Later that year, Landon moved to Hanoi as a Fulbright Fellow. He heads the Investment Promotion and Facilitation Division and is responsible for attracting, retaining and adding value to foreign direct investment with the view to create new economic opportunities in Brunei Darussalam for the local people and SMEs.
He read business administration, cybernetics, information technology and management from University of Reading, University of Hull, University of Western Australia and the London School of Economics and Political Science. In , he set up top Glove Sdn Bhd, his own glove manufacturing and trading business with only 1 factory and has the n expanded this business to sixteen 16 glove factories and two 2 latex concentrate factories with production lines producing 28 billion pieces of gloves as at June Prior to that, he was Vice-President, treasurer, and Honorary Secretary for the past seven years in this association.
In and he was the Board member of the Malaysia Rubber Board. Linus K. Koh is the Chief Financial Officer of the Singapore Exchange, the Executive Committee member responsible for the finance and treasury function, capital and enterprise risk management, investor relations, strategy planning, enterprise business architecture and program management. Prior to becoming CFO, Linus was Executive Vice President in charge of the development and management of listed securities and derivatives products, as well as exchange services to promote trading access and market participation.
Goh Holdings Limited, Singapore from Linus began his professional experience in capital markets with Citibank NA in He read Economics at Sheffield University and graduated with first class honours. HIPMI has various programmes that focus on developing small and medium scaled businesses that are able to compete on the regional as well as international market in order to face global competition and free trade.
Suryadana graduated from Institute technology of Surabaya majoring in telecommunications in and in , he attended Prasetya Mulya Business School in Jakarta, Indonesia. He is married with three children. Mirzan Mahathir, 48 years old, currently manages his investments in Malaysia and overseas while facilitating business collaboration in the region.
He was appointed as a member of the Financial Reporting Foundation in He went fur the r to pursue a Masters course in Digital Communication Systems at the University of Loughborough and graduated in with an MSc from the faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Pehin yasmin enlisted as an officer in the Royal Brunei Armed Forces and was commissioned as a Lieutenant in He has held a range of appointments in the areas of logistics, strategy, corporate management and policy.
In , he was appointed as the Director of Intelligence and Security. Pehin yasmin assumed the post of Deputy Minister of Defence in May Nguyen thanh Hung is the Chairman of Sovico Group. Sovico was a small trading company set up in the early 90s.
Sovico has over the years emerged into one of the largest local diversified investment groups. In the two years that followed, Dr. Hung is also active in several notable business organizations. Nicholas C. Nick the n turned his attention to South East Asia and has lived and worked in the region since, developing the Readymix Group.
Chao Choon has been with PwC for 20 years, including two years in Sydney. He also works with infocomm companies to improve the ir internal controls and processes. A fa the r of four, he is a keen sportsman. Later, he also played for the Singapore Cricket Club. His o the r sporting passion is golf. He held various senior appointments during his national service and holds the rank of Major. Paolo co-founded Severn Capital in , whose clients included Cerberus Capital Management Asia and was involved in sourcing Asian special situation and distressed debt opportunities with specific interest in bank non-performing loan portfolio and distressed real-estate assets.
He subsequently moved to Singapore with the Credit Portfolio Management group involved in trading and managing credit derivative, proprietary credit and special situation debt and equity positions. He graduated diploma Magna Cum Laude from St. His interests include competitive triathlon, architecture and contemporary South East Asian art. He is married with two children.
Patrick has a B. Patrick was active while at university. As a professional, he was appointed as treasurer of the Indonesian Professional Association in San Francisco. Patrick S. Walujo is a co-founder and comanaging director of Northstar Pacific Partners. Northstar Pacific is a leading Jakarta-based merchant bank with main activities in private equity investment and corporate finance.
He was a core member of corporate advisory team that was responsible for marketing and executing various corporate transactions primarily in 85 Profiles of Participants the UK, Europe, and partially in Sou the ast Asia. He speaks Indonesian, English, Japanese and Mandarin. HR Rasuna Said Kav. In , Patrick made his first foray into the fitness industry and was soon bitten by the entrepreneurial bug. In , the partnership sold its interest to a US venture fund. Following the successful launch and management of the se clubs, Patrick, toge the r with his partner and founder of California Fitness, acquired the South Korean and thai business units of California Fitness in He sold the latter a year later to California Fitness and returned to Singapore, armed with eight years of experience in the fitness industry and bristling with new ideas about how to bring fitness and wellness to the masses.
Peter was formerly head of the Asia-Pacific real estate finance group for Salomon Bro the rs 87 Profiles of Participants where he spent 9 years in tokyo and New york to Pham Ngoc Minh has spent his entire career in the aviation industry.
Since , Mr. Holding different positions in Vietnam Airlines since the n, Mr. A few years later, Mr. Minh finished his Ph. Philip has garnered 89 Profiles of Participants several accolades and awards for his creative work. Philip is active in o the r key professional organizations. He has been President of the Law Society of Singapore since Outside the legal profession, he sits on the Boards of the National Arts Council and the Singapore tourism Board and was recently appointed to the Board of the National Kidney Foundation.
With his management and leadership, he has proven his excellent capability and capacities in both the public and private sectors as president, co-chairman, committee member, business advisor and auditor. Due to his strong ties with the public sector, Mr.
He was also on the Sifting through Policy Committee of the former Deputy Prime Minister, where he served as a policy advisor. He was also the director of the Federation of thai Industries, and has served as its co-chairman, committee member and consultant.
With his networking, he the n diversified his business into trading, publishing and event management. In the private sector, Mr. As a board member of ECR thailand, he advised supply chain members and those interested in entering the industry and served as a guest speaker at various events. In his down time, he is also actively involved in charitable activities. He the n worked with Forum Keadilan Magazine as a reporter and Rakyat Merdeka Newspaper first as a reporter, rising through the ranks to become its Managing Director.
Pt Rajawali Citra televisi Indonesia Jl. He retired as Director General of telecommunications with the corporatisation of the telecommunications Department on 1st January and was appointed Director Operations in the successor company, telekom Malaysia.
Rajan R. A gold medalist achiever at the University of Poona in the Bachelors of Electronics and telecommunications program from the Government at the College of Engineering in Pune COEP , India, he was also ranked 8th out of over , students in the state of Maharashtra in the Higher Secondary Certification examination.
He is also a diploma holder in Business Management. Rajan is the Managing Director of the Indian arm of the Jetline Group of Companies with interests in packaging, manufacturing, software development and new ventures in consumer products and organized retail in India through its chain Big time. He is actively associated with various o the r business and social organizations in India and thailand.
I Search Worldwide is an industry specialty focused executive search firm with an international reach and has a rigorous process that has enabled it to successfully search and place thousands of exceptional candidates to the ir blue-chip client companies around the world. Richard has over 10 years of experience in the executive recruitment business and was formerly the managing director, Asia of an international executive search franchise.
Prior to joining the search industry, he was the general manager of AEA International now known as International SOS , the largest medical emergency assistance company in the world. Before that, he was the regional director, Asia for tourism for the Australian States of Victoria and tasmania.
He started his career as a product engineer with the American subsidiaries of Dynatech Inc and Pall Corporation. He is also listed and honored as a Prominent Victorian from his alma mater. Rasha has worked with the organization since its inception, and has overall responsibility for all operations, finances and the development of programs and implementation of projects. She the n went on to work for the Walt Disney Company where she helped set up the ir Middle East dubbing operations in Egypt and Lebanon.
From Mr. Mayo-Smith was hired by Citicorp Capital, the private equity division of Citibank, to source investment opportunities and conduct due diligence on over 30 companies. He lives in Ho Chi Minh City with his wife and three children. Anderson returned to New york at the end of to take up his present functions with a particular focus on international relationships.
Currently, Mr. Sandianga S. Indonesian young Entrepreneurs Association Jl. Serge Pun has led numerous real estate investments as a general partner in real estate limited partnerships, including projects such as Stewart terrace on the Peak to and Village Gardens in yau yat Chuen to In the se partnerships, Serge Pun was involved in the organisation, promotion and management of all real estate projects.
Branches and subsidiaries in Kuala Lumpur , Shenzhen , Chengdu and taipei followed in the ensuing years. In , Serge Pun decided to return to his hometown in Myanmar and set up the SPA Group, which has today grown to include about 40 operating companies active in 6 key businesses including financial services, real estate development, automobile, the service industry, manufacturing and agriculture. He was appointed to the Board on 3rd March He worked with KPMG London for 6 years and specialized in initially shipping and insurance industry and later in the banking and finance industry, including the oil and gas services industry.
He has served on o the r numerous Government and Non-Government committees. Shuif Hussain heads up a Family Office and is currently based at an estate in the UK where he is able to indulge in his love of country sports. He is an active investor in the the private equity arena in UK, Canada and Asia.
Recent successes include an investment in the oil and gas sector in Canada which was bought and succesfully sold in 12 months. His early entreprenurial career was in Brunei where he was active in the young Entreprenuers Assocation. An entrepreneur, in his career he has created and sold both a direct marketing company and a sports marketing agency. Vukmer joined Indochina Capital in June Prior to joining Indochina Capital, Mr. From to , Mr. Vukmer received a Bachelor of Arts degree from yale University with a self-designed major in ma the matical finance in and was later a Visiting Scholar of Financial Management at Oxford University from to He also holds a sugar technology certificate from Queensland, Australia.
He is concurrently the Managing Director of several firms of the group, with business ranging from sugar processing and sugar cane plantation, to public warehousing and wharf operations, tissue paper, road and bridge construction and logistics. Ngo joined Indochina Capital in June At Heritage Partners Inc, he was engaged in all aspects of the transaction process, including sourcing, valuation, capital structuring, transaction negotiation, due diligence, company oversight and exit strategy.
Ngo worked as an investment banker with Lehman Bro the rs Inc in the financial sponsors group, focused on leveraged finance and mergers and acquisitions transactions. He is a Public Service Award recipient. He was the Financial Controller for a private investment company in Malaysia and an auditor with Deloitte in Sydney. Nguyen joined Indochina capital in February and is currently a member of its board of directors.
Nguyen received a Bachelor of Science degree in general business with an emphasis in finance from the University of Minnesota in While pursuing his undergraduate degree, he participated in an independent studies programme that gave him a semester of full-time political staffing responsibilities in the executive offices of the president of the United States at the White House in Washington, DC.
Founded in and now run by its third family generation, the scope of business and ownership encompass joint-ventureship with Mitsubishi Motors Corporation of Japan in manufacturing, distributing and exporting vehicles and parts through cooperation with Mitsubishi affiliates in thailand and to global markets.
In its o the r related business, the group is also involved in computer systems integration, massive real estate construction and development, ownership of vineyards and properties in various sites such as France and USA, luxury fashion business relationship with world-leading brands such as Hermes, Giorgio Armani and Valentino for thailand.
Vachara is a graduate of B. Mechanical Engineering from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, thailand. Warapong began his career with Siriwat Co as a Co-ordinating Manager in From to , he worked for the Credit Department of the Laem thong Bank. Markets: Asia Pacific and the Middle East. Previously, Zafrul, who is highly respected among the Malaysian financial community, was Head of Investment Banking in Citigroup Malaysia.
He started out as a corporate finance executive in AM Merchant Bank. He the n moved over to Credit Agricole as an investment analyst, moving up quickly to director within a few years. Zafrul combines in-depth knowledge and experience of the industry with a personable approachable personality — the perfect combination for a company that intends to offer premium financial products to the man-on- the -street.
After a few years he the n moved to Singapore to work in business development for Asia Inc magazine and subsequently Asia Inc Forum. He has a particular interest in working with clients in positioning and branding the mselves on such platforms. He holds an undergraduate degree in Business Administration from the University of Brunei Darussalam.
He enjoys golf and scuba diving. Danny spent most of his educational years in a mission school and went on to do his Diploma in Business and Finance. Danny has been involved in the family business since he was young. After two years at the airport and three years in seaport, Danny was posted back to the head office where he took on the role of Operations Manager.
He the n took the role of General Manager in In , Brunei transporting Company was invited to be a member of the World Air Cargo Organisation, an exclusive alliance of international freight forwarders where only one organisation is hand picked from each country.
CARGO currently composes of some 50 major airlines, freight forwarders, ground handling agents, trucking companies and It providers at over sites. Danny is married with 3 children.
While Airbus has long been the dominant player in India, the formerly state-run carrier is also in discussions with Boeing Co. The order would be one of the largest in commercial aerospace history, with a win for part or even all of the deal for Boeing NYSE: BA. Former Tesla Inc employees have filed a lawsuit against the U.
The lawsuit was filed late Sunday in Texas by two workers who said they were terminated from Tesla's gigafactory plant in Sparks, Nevada in June. According to the suit, more than employees were terminated at the Nevada factory. The Juneteenth holiday weekend may come as a bit of respite for investors. Last week, they had to navigate increasingly turbulent markets: The officially entered a bear market on Monday, the Federal Reserve announced a 0. Is the Stock Market Closed on Juneteenth?
Supply concerns are buoying the market, as Western sanctions on Russian oil bite and questions linger over how Russian output might fall due to sanctions on equipment needed for production, analysts said. When you inherit property, the IRS applies what is known as a stepped-up basis to that asset. Here's how capital gains are taxed on inherited property.
Just a few months ago real estate was flying high. But with mortgage rates rising, brokers are already seeing a sharp slowdown in buyers. The big builders are better positioned to weather a recession. Stock splits are getting a lot of attention this summer: Amazon just completed its for-1 split, Alphabet's for-1 action is coming up fast, Shopify approved a for-1 split, and Tesla's board of directors just signed off on a 3-for-1 split.
Fortinet shares will be divvied up on June 22, leaving shareholders on June 23 with five shares for every one they owned prior. As a reminder, the share price will also be divided by five to adjust accordingly, so the value of Fortinet as a company is not changing.
Another week of whipsaw stock trading has many investors wondering how much farther markets will fall. Investors have often blamed the Federal Reserve for market routs. It turns out the Fed has often had a hand in market turnarounds, too.
Investors are rethinking their trust in some crypto firms, including Celsius Network, after the companies took drastic steps in the face of a liquidity crisis. Dow 30 29, Nasdaq 10, Russell 1, Singapore has no natural resources of which to boast. As a result, the majority of the residents depend on Forex trade as a primary source of investment. It is, therefore, not surprising that the country has attracted several unscrupulous players who have been out to defraud unwary citizens. It monitors and authorizes the activities of Forex brokers in the country.
The purpose of the MAS is to enhance sustainable economic development. Its mission is to promote professional ethics in the financial sector. MAS strives to maintain it that way by fighting scammers and frauds through harsh laws and regulations that entail hefty fines and other forms of punishment. It aims at providing information to the general public on how to make financial decisions.
Financial Education committee heads the program. It provides information about the latest scam news and regulations in the Forex industry. It also offers details on how traders can keep off from fraudulent investors. MAS advises the citizens to deal only with duly regulated Forex brokers.
One key benefit is the guarantee on the security of the investment even if the broker collapses. The law obliges regulated brokers to handle customer complaint amicably and respectfully. It has also provided channels for managing conflicts between the parties. Courts are the final resort for solving disputes between the consumer and a Forex broker provided the latter is MAS-regulated.
Additionally, MAS has exhibited an excellent appreciation for trends in the global market, and it strives to accommodate them. There are regulatory organizations that are more reputable than MAS. However, it is undoubted that the Singaporean authority is better than many others in the world. Prospective brokers in Singapore must have a Forex license to engage in Forex trading. The first step is registering a company in the country with the primary purpose of providing FX trade services. The complementing reports provide information on the internal operation of the company.
There should also be a disclosure on the absence of conflicts of interest. The process may be tedious for foreign brokers. As a result, it has laid a number of operational requirements on all the brokers under its jurisdiction. They include:. The goal of this regulation is to ensure that investors can withdraw their money even if the broker collapses. Such protection is one of the reasons why it is vital to opt for licensed brokers. Professional employees : It is a requirement by MAS that all Forex brokers in the country employ staff that is qualified in money markets.
Consequently, it requires that each Forex broker provide a list of its employees and their qualifications before opening a business in Singapore. The brokers also provide information on the choice of investments instruments its offering to the clients such as currencies, stocks or other commodities. Proper bookkeeping : With the increased instances of money laundering, all Forex brokers in Singapore are obliged to provide evidence of their business transactions, Auditing and adequate accounting are necessary if a broker is to keep its business license.
MAS, however, ensures that the broker treats its customers with dignity. It has outlined a system of handling differences between a customer and the broker. The case can only end up in court if the mediating agencies do not resolve the matter. MT4, as it is popularly known, is a Forex trading platform that comes with a number of features.
MT4 Forex brokers list here. A specific feature that makes it a target is its provision for hedging and automatic trading. The latter allows the trader to use trading robots called Expert Advisors to analyze the market trends and trigger automatic transaction executions.
The feature led to the prohibition of the platform in Singapore and other countries such as the US. Therefore, Forex brokers that are willing to operate in the Asian city-state must settle for an alternative trading platform. Forex trading in Singapore excels in several ways. First, it is tax-free. Most countries such as the UK tax earnings from Forex trading which has made to traders to opt for spread betting format to avoid taxes.
Like in most countries, Singapore Forex brokers provide demo accounts. They offer unlimited opportunity for new traders to practice trading with virtual money. A demo account helps a prospective trader determine if the broker is worth investing and if they can handle the dynamics of financial markets.
It also allows the customer to learn the ropes when starting out. The Forex market is not as restricted in Singapore as it is in the US. However, US brokerages still provide more trading options than those from the Asian nation. It is unlike Singapore where one agency, MAS, regulates all the financial functions of the government. While it seems to work well in Singapore, it makes one question if there could have been better regulation had the roles been severed to a specific authority.
FX brokers that use MetaTrader4 have to find alternatives with which to explore the Singapore market. It is essential to point out that Singapore, in spite of its political stability, has been criticized as an authoritarian nation.
Some have termed the Forex industry as a cartel-managed sector. While there is little empirical evidence to substantiate some of these allegations, a broker should conduct diligent research on the dynamic of the market before jumping in. It is the most popular Singapore-based Forex trading company in the world. It is regulated by the regulatory organizations in the respective countries. A London-based Forex broker with offices in the Southeast Asia city-state. It has been on the market since and has become one of the favorite brokers in the country.
Plus is popular in Asia, Australia, and Europe, though under different names. The company is a broker in multi-asset as well as social trading. It has other offices in the UK, Cyprus, and Israel. It is the most popular brokerage among traders who are interested in no dealing desk brokers. The Chinese Yuan is one of the numerous currencies that this company offers its Singapore traders.
Singapore is a haven for Forex traders as its regulation focuses on safeguarding the interest of the trader. Legitimate brokers can thrive in the city-state because MAS protects them from the unfair competition that is common in unregulated markets. However, not all brokers operating in the country are legit. A trader has to confirm the registration status of the company with MAS; you can quickly find more information about Singapore FX trading market on topbrokers.
Risk Warning: Your capital is at risk. Invest in capital that is willing to expose such risks. Forex Brokers in Singapore. Classic filter Constructor. Minimum Deposit. Live spread. Bank broker. VIP accounts. Micro account. Cent account. Founded in. Payment systems.
Maximum Leverage. No deposit bonus. ECN accounts. Swap-Free accounts. Broker type. Deposit bonus. Trading instruments. Accepting US traders? Provision of VPS. STP accounts. Phone trading. Number of CFD assets. Mobile trading. Trust management. Affiliate program. Forex broker. Country of headquarters. Countries of offices. Deposit currency. Trading conditions. Deposit method. Withdrawal method. Trading platforms. Web-based platform. Self-developed trading platform.
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Exchanging foreign currency to local currency and vice versa; processing different types of remittances to different countries; cross-selling other financial. Financial Services Assurance Senior Associate at PwC Singapore Dec Overseas Community Service Project at Charis Home, Ilo Ilo, Philippines. Philippines; nationality Philippines (individual) AHMAD, Zaki Izzat Zaki; DOB 21 Apr ; POB AL HARAM FOREIGN EXCHANGE CO. LTD;.